humanism is the modern term for the moral, social and political
philosophy that in the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
began to be articulated in Italian city-states and most notably
term was coined by the German-American historian Hans Baron to denote
the new type of politically-committed humanism that emerged in Florence
in the wake of the Milanese wars (1390-1402). In his seminal work,
The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance (1955), Baron
described Quattrocento Florentine republicanism as a happy marriage
between, on the one hand, the civic tradition of the late medieval
commune, and on the other, Petrarchan humanism and classical learning.
civic humanism can be described as a political and ideological discourse
that draws heavily on the political languages of Aristotelian republicanism,
Roman statism and the political experience of the Italian communes.
It has been studied in connection to the English civil war, pre-revolutionary
America, Montaigne, Rousseau, the French revolution, and the Weimar
republic, just to mention a few areas.
and methodologically, civic humanism has come to be associated with
the Cambridge School, represented primarily by John Pocock and Quentin
Skinner. This contextualist approach to historical studies and political
theory focuses of intellectual and ideological vocabularies, and
the role of conceptual and linguistic change in the study of politics.
contemporary political discourse, civic humanism has served as inspiration
for attempts at reviving classical republicanism, and entered into
the debate surrounding communitarianism.